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The baths of the legionary fortress, the Thermae Maiores

One of the halls of the baths of the legionary fortress was found in 1778, during the first archaeological excavation in Aquincum.

The excavator, István Schönvisner published his findings in the same year in “De Ruderibus Laconici Caldariique Romanorum”. The excavated section of the baths was soon presented to the general public in a protective building. Today we are familiar with almost the entire legionary baths. The monumental structure (120 m by 140 m) stood at the intersection of the fortress’s two main roads. The baths’ main entrances opened onto these two roads. The building was constructed in the 2nd century, and rebuilt a number of times afterwards. We know its Latin name from a reconstruction inscription from 268. The bath complex offered soldiers an exercise court (palaestra), cold, warm, and hot pools, baths, steam baths, and spacious halls with underfloor heating. Soldiers here had numerous opportunities to exercise and bathe.

The ruins of the Thermae Maiores can be visited in the Baths Museum through the Flórián Square underpass.