The collection of the Budapest History Museum’s Prehistoric and Migration period Department contains almost 390,000 objects.
The collection of the Budapest History Museum’s Prehistorical and Migration period Department contains almost 390,000 objects.
This rich collection from Budapest and its surrounding contains finds ranging in age from the Paleolitic to the Celtic periods, a time span of nearly 50,000 years.
The earliest, approximately 50,000 year-old archeological finds may possibly be assigned to the Middle Paleolithic period. They were brought to light during excavations near the town of Érd at a former hunting (or scavanging) camp that seems to have specializedin cave bear.
Some of this collection’s particularly rich and unique finds includem the Middle Neolithic face-vessels, unearthed in settlements of the Transdanubian Linear Band Culture located near Budapest (e.g. Növény Street, Biatorbágy, Törökbálint, Kőérberek-Tóváros). The Middle Copper Period is represented by finds of the Ludanice Culture, the Stab-and-Drag Pottery Culture and the so-called Protoboleraz Horizon.
Pottery associated with the Late Copper Age Baden Culture could be found in larger settlements of the period: Andor Street, Káposztásmegyer and Békásmegyer. The real highlights of the collection comprise finds of the Early Bronze Age Bell Beaker-Csepel Group, whose settlements may be found concentrated in the surroundings of the capital alone, along the Danube River. The most significant finds came from Albertfalva, Csepel and Békásmegyer. Apart from the urns of Middle Bronze Age Vatya Culture unearthed in a cemetery on Növény Street, ritually hidden bronze and ceramic objects are also well known (Rákospalota, Bekásmegyer, Remete-Felső Cave).
The sensational find group containing more then hundred sacred ceramic vessels, dating to the so-called Tumulus Period, ame to light during the demolition of the Skála Shopping Center.
Cultic grave contents (bootpots, ”magic tools”, bird-shaped pots etc.) of Europe-wide significance connected to the Late Bronze Age Urn-field Culture are known from the unique cemetery in Békásmegyer.
Large-scale excavations carried out on the slopes of Csúcs-hill and Kőérberek revealed large and unique graphite patterned vessels connected to the Early Iron Age Hallstadt culture. Recently, a Scythian Period cemetery has been found in Soroksár.
The most significant pieces from the Late Iron Age Celtic period were unearthed in the Csepel Sewage Treatment area and come from a La Tene B-C Period cemetery and a site at in the Tabán area of Budapest that survived into the Roman period.
Of particular note is the fortified site (oppidum) lying on the southern slopes of Gellért hill. This major settlement was built and inhabited by people of the Celtic, Eraviscus tribe.
The most beautiful and most significant finds are exhibited in the Buda Castle, in our permanent exhibition “Ancient peoples, Antique cultures” and in the Visual Storage section of the Aquincum Museum.